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After centuries of sovereign rule by the king, the first common constitution was completed and signed in 1849, initiating a government with an assembly consisting of a lower house ( Folketing ) and upper house ( Landsting ).The making of a common constitution was an important element in the nineteenth century's political emphasis on the formation of nationhood. Beer, allotment gardens, the flag, the national anthem, democracy, Christmas, folk high schools, personal well-being, and coziness are some of the elements of the national culture, but questions of how the cultural heritage can survive and what it is emphasize the fact that Denmark is a nation of cultural borrowers.The national anthem, "Der er et Yndigt Land" ("There Is a Lovely Land"), was written around 1820. Denmark is a constitutional monarchy and the oldest kingdom in Europe.According to historical sources it dates back to the ninth century, but myth dates it as far back as the sixth century.Denmark is a small nation whose cultural unity is mitigated by regional traditions of rural, urban, and island communities with distinctions based on local language, food, and history.
In the late medieval period, Denmark was reduced in size to approximately the area of contemporary Denmark.Denmark historically includes the former colonies Greenland and the Faroe Islands. In 1948, the Faroe Islands became a self-governing territory within the Danish state. The kingdom of Denmark, which is situated in Scandinavia and northern Europe, is surrounded by the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Baltic Sea.